Corrections of Sun-as-a-star p-mode frequencies for effects of the solar cycleA.-M. Broomhall1, W. J. Chaplin1, Y. Elsworth1, S. T. Fletcher2, and R. New2
1 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
2 Faculty of Arts, Computing, Engineering and Sciences, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK
Received 6 April 2009 / Accepted 10 June 2009
Solar p-mode frequencies vary with solar activity. It is important to take this into account when comparing the frequencies observed from epochs that span different regions of the solar cycle. We present details of how to correct observed p-mode frequencies for the effects of the solar cycle. We describe three types of correction. The first allows mode frequencies to be corrected to a nominal activity level, such as the canonical quiet-Sun level. The second accounts for the effect on the observed mode frequencies, powers, and damping rates of the continually varying solar cycle and is pertinent to frequencies obtained from very long data sets. The third corrects for Sun-as-a-star observations not seeing all components of the modes. Suitable combinations of the three correction procedures allow the frequencies obtained from different sets of data to be compared and enable activity-independent inversions of the solar interior. As an example of how to apply the corrections we describe those used to produce a set of definitive Sun-as-a-star frequencies.
Key words: methods: data analysis -- Sun: activity -- Sun: helioseismology -- Sun: oscillations
© ESO 2009