XMM-Newton observation of the supernova remnant Kes 78 (G32.8-0.1): Evidence of shock-cloud interaction
1 Dipartimento di Fisica & Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
2 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
3 Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan
4 Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan
5 Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, PR China
6 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
Received: 4 October 2016
Accepted: 1 December 2016
Context. The Galactic supernova remnant Kes 78 is surrounded by dense molecular clouds, whose projected position overlaps with the extended HESS γ-ray source HESS J1852-000. The X-ray emission from the remnant has recently been revealed by Suzaku observations, which have shown indications for a hard X-ray component in the spectra that might be associated with synchrotron radiation.
Aims. We describe the spatial distribution of the physical properties of the X-ray emitting plasma and reveal the effects of the interaction of the remnant with the inhomogeneous ambient medium. We also investigate the origin of the γ-ray emission, which may be inverse-Compton radiation associated with X-ray synchrotron-emitting electrons or hadronic emission originating from the impact of high-energy protons on the nearby clouds.
Methods. We analyzed an XMM-Newton EPIC observation of Kes 78 by performing image analysis and spatially resolved spectral analysis on a set of three regions. We tested our findings against the observations of the 12CO and 13CO emission in the environment of the remnant.
Results. We reveal the complex X-ray morphology of Kes 78 and find variations in the spectral properties of the plasma, with significantly denser and cooler material at the eastern edge of the remnant, which we interpret as a signature of interaction with a molecular cloud. We also exclude that narrow filaments emit the X-ray synchrotron radiation.
Conclusions. Assuming that the very high energy γ-ray emission is associated with Kes 78, the lack of synchrotron emission rules out a leptonic origin. A hadronic origin is further supported by evidence of interaction of the remnant with a dense molecular cloud in its eastern limb.
Key words: X-rays: ISM / ISM: supernova remnants / ISM: individual objects: Kes 78 / ISM: clouds / acceleration of particles
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