The Gaia-ESO Survey: Chromospheric emission, accretion properties, and rotation in γ Velorum and Chamaeleon I⋆,⋆⋆,⋆⋆⋆
1 INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
2 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
3 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, 80131 Naples, Italy
4 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
5 INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
6 Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
7 Departamento de Astrofísica y Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
8 Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Apdo 3004, 18080 Granada, Spain
9 School of Physics, Astronomy & Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL10 9AB, UK
10 Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
11 Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-752 Porto, Portugal
12 S. D. Astronomía y Geodesia, Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
13 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwartzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
14 Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
15 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
16 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
17 Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
18 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile
19 Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
Received: 16 June 2014
Accepted: 8 December 2014
Aims. One of the goals of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES), which is conducted with FLAMES at the VLT, is the census and the characterization of the low-mass members of very young clusters and associations. We conduct a comparative study of the main properties of the sources belonging to γ Velorum (γ Vel) and Chamaeleon I (Cha I) young associations, focusing on their rotation, chromospheric radiative losses, and accretion.
Methods. We used the fundamental parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, lithium abundance, and radial velocity) delivered by the GES consortium in the first internal data release to select the members of γ Vel and Cha I among the UVES and GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations. A total of 140 γ Vel members and 74 Cha I members were studied. The procedure adopted by the GES to derive stellar fundamental parameters also provided measures of the projected rotational velocity (vsini). We calculated stellar luminosities through spectral energy distributions, while stellar masses were derived by comparison with evolutionary tracks. The spectral subtraction of low-activity and slowly rotating templates, which are rotationally broadened to match the vsini of the targets, enabled us to measure the equivalent widths (EWs) and the fluxes in the Hα and Hβ lines. The Hα line was also used for identifying accreting objects, on the basis of its EW and the width at the 10% of the line peak (10%W), and for evaluating the mass accretion rate (Ṁacc).
Results. The distribution of vsini for the members of γ Vel displays a peak at about 10 km s-1 with a tail toward faster rotators. There is also some indication of a different vsini distribution for the members of its two kinematical populations. Most of these stars have Hα fluxes corresponding to a saturated activity regime. We find a similar distribution, but with a narrower peak, for Cha I. Only a handful of stars in γ Vel display signatures of accretion, while many more accretors were detected in the younger Cha I, where the highest Hα fluxes are mostly due to accretion, rather than to chromospheric activity. Accreting and active stars occupy two different regions in a Teff–flux diagram and we propose a criterion for distinguishing them. We derive Ṁacc in the ranges 10-11–10-9 M⊙ yr-1 and 10-10–10-7 M⊙ yr-1 for γ Vel and Cha I accretors, respectively. We find less scatter in the Ṁacc − M⋆ relation derived through the Hα EWs, when compared to the Hα10%W diagnostics, in agreement with other authors.
Key words: stars: chromospheres / stars: low-mass / open clusters and associations: individual:γVelorum / stars: rotation / open clusters and associations: individual: Chamaeleon I / stars: pre-main sequence
Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002.
Tables 5, 6, and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Tables 2–4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A4
© ESO, 2015