Absolute dimensions of solar-type eclipsing binaries
J. Vos1,2, J. V. Clausen2, U. G. Jørgensen2,3, R. H. Østensen1, A. Claret4, M. Hillen1 and K. Exter1
1 Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D BUS 2401, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
2 Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
3 Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Geological Museum, Øster Voldgade 5, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark
4 Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Apartado 3004, 18080 Granada, Spain
Received: 7 December 2011
Accepted: 8 February 2012
Context. Recent studies have shown that stellar chromospheric activity, and its effect on convective energy transport in the envelope, is most likely the cause of significant radius and temperature discrepancies between theoretical evolution models and observations. Accurate mass, radius, and abundance determinations from solar-type binaries exhibiting various levels of activity are needed for a better insight into the structure and evolution of these stars.
Aims. We aim to determine absolute dimensions and abundances for the solar-type detached eclipsing binary EF Aqr, and to perform a detailed comparison with results from recent stellar evolutionary models.
Methods.uvby light curves and uvbyβ standard photometry were obtained with the Strömgren Automatic Telescope. The broadening function formalism was applied on spectra observed with HERMES at the Mercator telescope in La Palma, to obtain radial velocity curves. State-of-the-art methods were applied for the photometric and spectroscopic analyses.
Results. Masses and radii with a precision of 0.6% and 1.0% respectively have been established for both components of EF Aqr. The active 0.956 M⊙ secondary shows star spots and strong Ca II H and K emission lines. The 1.224 M⊙ primary shows signs of activity as well, but at a lower level. An [Fe/H] abundance of 0.00 ± 0.10 is derived with similar abundances for Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, and Ni. Solar calibrated evolutionary models such as Yonsei-Yale, Victoria-Regina and BaSTI isochrones and evolutionary tracks are unable to reproduce EF Aqr, especially for the secondary, which is 9% larger and 400 K cooler than predicted. Models adopting significantly lower mixing length parameters l/Hp remove these discrepancies, as seen in other solar type binaries. For the observed metallicity, Granada models with a mixing length of l/Hp = 1.30 (primary) and 1.05 (secondary) reproduce both components at a common age of 1.5 ± 0.6 Gyr.
Conclusions. Observations of EF Aqr suggests that magnetic activity, and its effect on envelope convection, is likely to be the cause of discrepancies in both radius and temperature, which can be removed by adjusting the mixing length parameter of the models downwards.
Key words: stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: abundances / stars: activity / binaries: eclipsing
Based on observations carried out at the Strömgren Automatic Telescope (SAT) at ESO, La Silla, and the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias.
© ESO, 2012