WMAP7 and future CMB constraints on annihilating dark matter: implications for GeV-scale WIMPs
1 Tartu Observatory, Tõravere 61602, Estonia
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching, Germany
3 Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada
4 National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn 10143, Estonia
Received: 17 March 2011
Accepted: 30 August 2011
Aims. We calculate constraints from current and future cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements on annihilating dark matter (DM) with masses below the electroweak scale: mDM = 5 − 100 GeV. In particular, we assume the S-wave annihilation mode to be dominant, and focus our attention on the lower end of this mass range, as DM particles with masses mDM ~ 10 GeV have recently been claimed to be consistent with the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA results, while also providing viable DM candidates to explain the measurements of Fermi and WMAP haze. We study the model (in)dependence of the CMB power spectra on particle physics DM models, large-scale structure formation and cosmological uncertainties. We attempt to find a simple and practical recipe for estimating current and future CMB bounds on a broad class of DM annihilation models.
Methods. We use a model-independent description for DM annihilation into a wide set of Standard Model particles simulated by PYTHIA Monte Carlo. Our Markov chain Monte Carlo calculations used for finding model constraints involve realistic CMB likelihoods and assume a standard 6-parameter ΛCDM background cosmological model, which is extended by two additional DM annihilation parameters: mDM and ⟨ σAυ ⟩ /mDM.
Results. We show that in the studied DM mass range the CMB signal of DM annihilations is independent of the details of large-scale structure formation, distribution, and profile of DM halos and other cosmological uncertainties. All particle physics models of DM annihilation can be described with only one parameter, the fraction of energy carried away by neutrinos in DM annihilation. As the main result we provide a simple and rather generic fitting formula for calculating CMB constraints on the annihilation cross section of light WIMPs. We show that thermal relic DM in the CoGeNT, DAMA/LIBRA favored mass range is in a serious conflict with present CMB data for the annihilation channels with few neutrinos, and will definitely be tested by the Planck mission for all possible DM annihilation channels. Also, our findings strongly disfavor the claim that thermal relic DM annihilations with mDM ~ 10 GeV and ⟨ σAυ ⟩ ~ 9 × 10-25 cm3 s-1 could be a cause of Fermi and WMAP haze.
Key words: cosmic background radiation / cosmological parameters / dark matter / cosmology: theory / elementary particles / diffuse radiation
© ESO, 2011