Apparent high metallicity in 3–4 keV galaxy clusters: the inverse iron-bias in action in the case of the merging cluster Abell 2028
F. Gastaldello1,2⋆, S. Ettori3,4, I. Balestra5, F. Brighenti6,7, D. A. Buote2, S. De Grandi8, S. Ghizzardi1, M. Gitti3,9 and P. Tozzi10
INAF, IASF, via Bassini 15,
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, 4129, Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA, 92697-4575, USA
3 INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
4 INFN, Sezione di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
5 MPE, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching, Germany
6 University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
7 Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127, Italy
8 INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate (LC), Italy
9 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
10 INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy
Accepted: 16 June 2010
Context. Recent work based on a global measurement of the ICM properties finds evidence for an increase in the iron abundance in galaxy clusters with temperatures around 2 − 4 keV up to a value about 3 times higher than is typical of very hot clusters ZFe ≃ 0.25 Z⊙.
Aims. We have started a study of the metal distribution in nearby X-ray luminous poor galaxy clusters in the temperature range 3 − 4 keV with measured high abundances. Our study aims at spatially resolving the metal content of the central regions of the ICM, in particular characterizing how our measurements are biased by the diagnostics adopted and by the possible multi-temperature nature of the projected observed spectra. We report here on a 42 ks XMM-Newton observation of the first object in the sample, the cluster Abell 2028.
Methods. We selected interesting regions of the ICM to analyze the spatially resolved structure of projected temperature and abundance, thereby producing two-dimensional maps.
Results. The XMM-Newton observation of the first object of the sample, the cluster Abell 2028, reveals the complex structure of the cluster over a scale of ~300 kpc, showing an interaction between two subclusters in cometary-like configurations. Cold fronts have been detected at the leading edges of the two substructures. The core of the main subcluster is likely hosting a cool corona. We show that a one-component fit for this region returns a biased high metallicity. The inverse iron bias is caused by the behavior of the fitting code in shaping the Fe-L complex. In the presence of a multi-temperature structure of the ICM, the best-fit metallicity turns out to be artificially higher when the projected spectrum is modeled with a single temperature component, while it is not related to the presence of both Fe-L and Fe-K emission lines in the spectrum. After accounting for the inverse iron bias, the overall abundance of the cluster is consistent with the one typical of hotter, more massive clusters.
Conclusions. We caution against interpreting high abundances inferred when fitting a single thermal component to spectra derived from relatively large apertures in 3 − 4 keV clusters, because the inverse iron bias can be present. Most of the inferences trying to relate high abundances in 3 − 4 keV clusters to fundamental physical processes will probably have to be revised.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium / galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell 2028 / galaxies: abundances / X-rays: galaxies: clusters
© ESO, 2010