Beryllium abundances along the evolutionary sequence of the open cluster IC 4651 – A new test for hydrodynamical stellar models*,**
Universidade de São Paulo, IAG, Dep. de Astronomia, Rua
do Matão 1226, São Paulo-SP 05508-090, Brazil e-mail: email@example.com
2 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland e-mail: [Corinne.Charbonnel;Nadege.Lagarde]@unige.ch
4 LATT, CNRS UMR 5572, Université de Toulouse, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
Accepted: 5 November 2009
Context. Previous analyses of lithium abundances in main sequence and red giant stars have revealed the action of mixing mechanisms other than convection in stellar interiors. Beryllium abundances in stars with Li abundance determinations can offer valuable complementary information on the nature of these mechanisms.
Aims. Our aim is to derive Be abundances along the whole evolutionary sequence of an open cluster. We focus on the well-studied open cluster IC 4651. These Be abundances are used with previously determined Li abundances, in the same sample stars, to investigate the mixing mechanisms in a range of stellar masses and evolutionary stages.
Methods. Atmospheric parameters were adopted from a previous abundance analysis by the same authors. New Be abundances have been determined from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise UVES spectra using spectrum synthesis and model atmospheres. The careful synthetic modeling of the Be lines region is used to calculate reliable abundances in rapidly rotating stars. The observed behavior of Be and Li is compared to theoretical predictions from stellar models including rotation-induced mixing, internal gravity waves, atomic diffusion, and thermohaline mixing.
Results. Beryllium is detected in all the main sequence and turn-off sample stars, both slow- and fast-rotating stars, including the Li-dip stars, but is not detected in the red giants. Confirming previous results, we find that the Li dip is also a Be dip, although the depletion of Be is more modest than for Li in the corresponding effective temperature range. For post-main-sequence stars, the Be dilution starts earlier within the Hertzsprung gap than expected from classical predictions, as does the Li dilution. A clear dispersion in the Be abundances is also observed. Theoretical stellar models including the hydrodynamical transport processes mentioned above are able to reproduce all the observed features well. These results show a good theoretical understanding of the Li and Be behavior along the color-magnitude diagram of this intermediate-age cluster for stars more massive than 1.2 .
Key words: stars: abundances / stars: evolution / rotation / open clusters and associations: individual: IC 4651
© ESO, 2010