EDP Sciences
Free access
Volume 501, Number 3, July III 2009
Page(s) 865 - 877
Section Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200811570
Published online 13 May 2009
A&A 501, 865-877 (2009)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200811570

A comprehensive study of large-scale structures in the GOODS-SOUTH field up to ${\mathsf z} \sim $ 2.5

S. Salimbeni1, 2, M. Castellano3, 2, L. Pentericci2, D. Trevese3, F. Fiore2, A. Grazian2, A. Fontana2, E. Giallongo2, K. Boutsia2, S. Cristiani4, C. De Santis5, 6, S. Gallozzi2, N. Menci2, M. Nonino4, D. Paris2, P. Santini2, and E. Vanzella4

1  Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    e-mail: salimben@astro.umass.edu
2  INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio (RM), Italy
3  Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy
4  INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy
5  Dip. di Fisica, Universitá Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma, Italy
6  INFN-Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma, Italy

Received 22 December 2008 / Accepted 21 March 2009

Aims. The aim of the present paper is to identify and study the properties and galactic content of groups and clusters in the GOODS-South field up to $z\sim
2.5$, and to analyse the physical properties of galaxies as a continuous function of environmental density up to high redshift.
Methods. We used the deep ( $z_{850}\sim 26$), multi-wavelength GOODS-MUSIC catalogue, which has a 15% of spectroscopic redshifts and accurate photometric redshifts for the remaining fraction. On these data, we applied a (2+1)D algorithm, previously developed by our group, that provides an adaptive estimate of the 3D density field. We supported our analysis with simulations to evaluate the purity and the completeness of the cluster catalogue produced by our algorithm.
Results. We find several high-density peaks embedded in larger structures in the redshift range 0.4–2.5. From the analysis of their physical properties (mass profile, M200, $\sigma_v$, $L_{\rm X}$, U-B vs. B diagram), we find that most of them are groups of galaxies, while two are poor clusters with masses a few times $10^{14}~M_\odot$. For these two clusters we find from the Chandra 2Ms data an X-ray emission significantly lower than expected from their optical properties, suggesting that the two clusters are either not virialised or are gas poor. We find that the slope of the colour magnitude relation, for these groups and clusters, is constant at least up to $z \sim 1$. We also analyse the dependence on environment of galaxy colours, luminosities, stellar masses, ages, and star formations. We find that galaxies in high-density regions are, on average, more luminous and massive than field galaxies up to $z
\sim 2$. The fraction of red galaxies increases with luminosity and with density up to $z\sim 1.2$. At higher z this dependence on density disappears. The variation of galaxy properties as a function of redshift and density suggests that a significant change occurs at $z \sim 1.5$–2.

Key words: galaxies: distances and redshifts -- galaxies: evolution -- galaxies: high-redshift -- galaxies: clusters: general -- galaxies: fundamental parameters -- cosmology: large-scale structure of Universe

© ESO 2009