A&A 401, 599-611 (2003)
Water ice growth around evolved starsC. Dijkstra, C. Dominik, S. N. Hoogzaad, A. de Koter and M. Min
Astronomical Institute, "Anton Pannekoek", University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
(Received 7 October 2002 / Accepted 15 January 2003 )
We present a model of the growth of water ice on silicate grains in the circumstellar envelopes of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and Red Super Giants. We consider the growth of ice by gas grain collisions, the thermal evaporation of ice from a grain, and sputtering. Our model contains several improvements compared to earlier models, including a detailed treatment of the effects of sputtering, a detailed calculation of the radiation pressure on the grain, and the treatment of subsonic drift velocities. In terms of drift velocity between the grains and gas in the envelope, we find that the ice formation process can be divided into three regimes: (i) a sputtering dominated regime where ice growth is heavily suppressed, (ii) an intermediate regime with moderately efficient condensation and (iii) a thermally dominated regime where ice formation is highly efficient. Sputtering is the critical factor which determines if ice formation can occur at all. We find that in Red Supergiants, ice formation is suppressed, while the winds of OH/IR stars allow for efficient condensation and can convert significant fractions of the available water vapor (tens of percent) into ice mantles on grains. Population II AGB stars hardly form ice due to their low dust to gas ratios. We also modify an analytical equation describing condensation and depletion (Jura & Morris 1985) in order to give reasonable results for high and low drift velocities. Initially, ice will condense in crystalline form, but continuing condensation at low temperatures, and damage caused by interstellar UV photons favor the production of amorphous ice as well. We predict that a significant fraction of the ice formed will be amorphous.
Key words: circumstellar matter -- infrared: stars -- stars: abundances -- stars: AGB and post-AGB -- stars: mass-loss
Offprint request: C. Dijkstra, email@example.com
© ESO 2003