EDP Sciences
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Volume 366, Number 2, February I 2001
Page(s) 363 - 375
Section Cosmology
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20000351

A&A 366, 363-375 (2001)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20000351

The redshift evolution of bias and baryonic matter distribution

P. Valageas1, J. Silk2, 3 and R. Schaeffer1

1  Service de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
2  Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK
3  Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France

(Received 12 January 2000 / Accepted 13 November 2000)

We study the distribution of baryonic and luminous matter within the framework of a hierarchical scenario. Using an analytical model for structure formation which has already been checked against observations for galaxies, Lyman-$\alpha$ clouds, clusters and reionization processes, we present its predictions for the bias of these objects. We describe its dependence on the luminosity (for galaxies or quasars) or the column density (for Lyman-$\alpha$ absorbers) of the considered objects. We also study its redshift evolution, which can exhibit an intricate behaviour. These astrophysical objects do not trace the dark matter density field, the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest clouds being undercorrelated and the bright galaxies overcorrelated, while the intermediate class of Lyman-limit systems is seen to sample the matter field quite well. We also present the distribution of baryonic matter over these various objects. We show that light does not trace baryonic mass, since bright galaxies which contain most of the stars only form a small fraction of the mass associated with virialized and cooled halos. We consider two cosmologies: a critical density universe and an open universe. In both cases, our results agree with observations and show that hierarchical scenarios provide a good model for structure formation and can describe a wide range of objects which spans at least the seven orders of magnitude in mass for which data exist. More detailed observations, in particular of the clustering evolution of galaxies, will constrain the astrophysical models involved.

Key words: Cosmology: large-scale structure of Universe -- galaxies: evolution -- quasars: general -- quasars: absorption lines -- intergalactic medium -- galaxies: clusters

Offprint request: P. Valageas, valag@spht.saclay.cea.fr

© ESO 2001